Routing

Next.js has a file-system based router built on the concept of pages.

When a file is added to the pages directory it's automatically available as a route.

The files inside the pages directory can be used to define most common patterns.

Index routes

The router will automatically route files named index to the root of the directory.

  • pages/index.js/
  • pages/blog/index.js/blog

Nested routes

The router supports nested files. If you create a nested folder structure files will be automatically routed in the same way still.

  • pages/blog/first-post.js/blog/first-post
  • pages/dashboard/settings/username.js/dashboard/settings/username

Dynamic route segments

To match a dynamic segment you can use the bracket syntax. This allows you to match named parameters.

  • pages/blog/[slug].js/blog/:slug (/blog/hello-world)
  • pages/[username]/settings.js/:username/settings (/foo/settings)
  • pages/post/[...all].js/post/* (/post/2020/id/title)

Check out the Dynamic Routes documentation to learn more about how they work.

Linking between pages

The Next.js router allows you to do client-side route transitions between pages, similar to a single-page application.

A React component called Link is provided to do this client-side route transition.

import Link from 'next/link'

function Home() {
  return (
    <ul>
      <li>
        <Link href="/">
          <a>Home</a>
        </Link>
      </li>
      <li>
        <Link href="/about">
          <a>About Us</a>
        </Link>
      </li>
      <li>
        <Link href="/blog/hello-world">
          <a>Blog Post</a>
        </Link>
      </li>
    </ul>
  )
}

export default Home

In the example above we have multiple links, each one maps a path (href) to a known page:

  • /pages/index.js
  • /aboutpages/about.js
  • /blog/hello-worldpages/blog/[slug].js

Linking to dynamic paths

You can also use interpolation to create the path, which comes in handy for dynamic route segments. For example, to show a list of posts which have been passed to the component as a prop:

import Link from 'next/link'

function Posts({ posts }) {
  return (
    <ul>
      {posts.map((post) => (
        <li key={post.id}>
          <Link href={`/blog/${encodeURIComponent(post.slug)}`}>
            <a>{post.title}</a>
          </Link>
        </li>
      ))}
    </ul>
  )
}

export default Posts

encodeURIComponent is used in the example to keep the path utf-8 compatible.

Alternatively, using a URL Object:

import Link from 'next/link'

function Posts({ posts }) {
  return (
    <ul>
      {posts.map((post) => (
        <li key={post.id}>
          <Link
            href={{
              pathname: '/blog/[slug]',
              query: { slug: post.slug },
            }}
          >
            <a>{post.title}</a>
          </Link>
        </li>
      ))}
    </ul>
  )
}

export default Posts

Now, instead of using interpolation to create the path, we use a URL object in href where:

  • pathname is the name of the page in the pages directory. /blog/[slug] in this case.
  • query is an object with the dynamic segment. slug in this case.

Injecting the router

Examples

To access the router object in a React component you can use useRouter or withRouter.

In general we recommend using useRouter.

Learn more

The router is divided in multiple parts: