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Pages

A page is a React Component exported from a .js, .ts, or .tsx file in the pages directory.

Pages are associated with a route based on their file name. For example pages/about.js is mapped to /about. You can even utilize dynamic route parameters through the filename.

For example pages/index.js could be a React component returning some JSX content:

function HomePage() {
  return <div>Welcome to Next.js!</div>
}

export default HomePage

Pre-rendering permalink

Next.js comes with the concept of pre-rendering built-in. This is enabled by default. Pre-rendering comes in 2 forms:

  • Static Generation
  • Server-side rendering

Next.js applications can be a hybrid combination of these rendering targets. You decide per-page if it will be statically rendered at build time or if will be server-rendered on-demand.

The way that Pre-rendering works in Next.js is that the page is rendered to HTML either at build-time or on-demand, this generated HTML will be optimized automatically.

The generated HTML will include the JavaScript needed to load React with the current page's React component. When that is loaded we use a process called "hydration" to make sure the React event handlers and effects are attached and called.

Static Generation permalink

Generally used for:

  • Static Marketing pages
  • Static Blog
  • Dashboards

Referred to as:

  • Static Site Generation (SSG)
  • Static Generation
  • Static Websites

The page is rendered to static HTML when next build is ran. next build will output the HTML into a .html file and that file will be served consistently without changes.

Considering that by default pages in Next.js have consistent output between renders, Next.js will pre-render the pages that don't have blocking data requirements.

One upside of build-time pre-rendering is that static HTML can be served from a CDN automatically if your hosting provider supports it.

// This page has no blocking data requirements
// it'll be rendered as static HTML at build time
function HomePage() {
  return <div>Welcome to Next.js!</div>
}

export default HomePage

Server-Side Rendering permalink

Generally used for:

  • Frequently updated data
  • CMS backed pages

Referred to as:

  • Server-Side rendering (SSR)
  • Dynamic rendering
  • On-demand rendering

When a request comes in to the server the page is rendered on-demand, meaning the user that requests the page always gets the latest data. This mode is opted into by adding a blocking data requirement to the page.

Data is always up-to-date but it comes at the cost of a slightly higher Time to First Byte as HTML has to be rendered for the specific user. Additionally a Node.js runtime has to be running and has to scale with the amount of traffic.

// This page has defined `getInitialProps` to do data fetching.
// Next.js will execute `getInitialProps`
// It will wait for the result of `getInitialProps`
// When the results comes back Next.js will render the page.
// Next.js will do this for every request that comes in.
import fetch from 'isomorphic-unfetch'

function HomePage({ stars }) {
  return <div>Next stars: {stars}</div>
}

HomePage.getInitialProps = async ({ req }) => {
  const res = await fetch('https://api.github.com/repos/zeit/next.js')
  const json = await res.json()
  return { stars: json.stargazers_count }
}

export default HomePage

Learn more permalink

For more information on what to do next, we recommend the following sections: