Dynamic API Routes

Examples

API routes support dynamic routes, and follow the same file naming rules used for pages.

For example, the API route pages/api/post/[pid].js has the following code:

export default (req, res) => {
  const {
    query: { pid },
  } = req

  res.end(`Post: ${pid}`)
}

Now, a request to /api/post/abc will respond with the text: Post: abc.

Index routes and Dynamic API routes

A very common RESTful pattern is to set up routes like this:

  • GET api/posts/ - gets a list of posts, probably paginated
  • GET api/posts/12345 - gets post id 12345

We can model this in two ways:

  • Option 1:

    • /api/posts.js
    • /api/posts/[postId].js
  • Option 2:

    • /api/posts/index.js
    • /api/posts/[postId].js

Both are equivalent. A third option of only using /api/posts/[postId].js is not valid because Dynamic Routes (including Catch-all routes - see below) do not have an undefined state and GET api/posts/ will not match /api/posts/[postId].js under any circumstances.

Catch all API routes

API Routes can be extended to catch all paths by adding three dots (...) inside the brackets. For example:

  • pages/api/post/[...slug].js matches /api/post/a, but also /api/post/a/b, /api/post/a/b/c and so on.

Note: You can use names other than slug, such as: [...param]

Matched parameters will be sent as a query parameter (slug in the example) to the page, and it will always be an array, so, the path /api/post/a will have the following query object:

{ "slug": ["a"] }

And in the case of /api/post/a/b, and any other matching path, new parameters will be added to the array, like so:

{ "slug": ["a", "b"] }

An API route for pages/api/post/[...slug].js could look like this:

export default (req, res) => {
  const {
    query: { slug },
  } = req

  res.end(`Post: ${slug.join(', ')}`)
}

Now, a request to /api/post/a/b/c will respond with the text: Post: a, b, c.

Optional catch all API routes

Catch all routes can be made optional by including the parameter in double brackets ([[...slug]]).

For example, pages/api/post/[[...slug]].js will match /api/post, /api/post/a, /api/post/a/b, and so on.

The query objects are as follows:

{ } // GET `/api/post` (empty object)
{ "slug": ["a"] } // `GET /api/post/a` (single-element array)
{ "slug": ["a", "b"] } // `GET /api/post/a/b` (multi-element array)

Caveats

  • Predefined API routes take precedence over dynamic API routes, and dynamic API routes over catch all API routes. Take a look at the following examples:
    • pages/api/post/create.js - Will match /api/post/create
    • pages/api/post/[pid].js - Will match /api/post/1, /api/post/abc, etc. But not /api/post/create
    • pages/api/post/[...slug].js - Will match /api/post/1/2, /api/post/a/b/c, etc. But not /api/post/create, /api/post/abc

Related

For more information on what to do next, we recommend the following sections: