Next.js 13

As we announced at Next.js Conf, Next.js 13 (stable) lays the foundations to be dynamic without limits:

Next.js 13 and the pages directory are stable and ready for production. Update today by running:

npm i next@latest react@latest react-dom@latest eslint-config-next@latest

New app Directory (Beta)

Today, we're improving the routing and layouts experience in Next.js and aligning with the future of React with the introduction of the app directory. This is a follow-up to the Layouts RFC previously published for community feedback.

The app directory is currently in beta and we do not recommend using it in production yet. You can use Next.js 13 with the pages directory with stable features like the improved next/image and next/link components, and opt into the app directory at your own pace. The pages directory will continue to be supported for the foreseeable future.

The app directory includes support for:

  • Layouts: Easily share UI between routes while preserving state and avoiding expensive re-renders.
  • Server Components: Making server-first the default for the most dynamic applications.
  • Streaming: Display instant loading states and stream in units of UI as they are rendered.
  • Support for Data Fetching: async Server Components and extended fetch API enables component-level fetching.
The app directory can be incrementally adopted from your existing pages/ directory.

Layouts

The app/ directory makes it easy to lay out complex interfaces that maintain state across navigations, avoid expensive re-renders, and enable advanced routing patterns. Further, you can nest layouts, and colocate application code with your routes, like components, tests, and styles.

The app/ directory can be incrementally adopted from your existing pages/ directory.
Creating routes inside `app/` requires a single file, `page.js`:
// app/page.js
// This file maps to the index route (/)
export default function Page() {
  return <h1>Hello, Next.js!</h1>;
}

You can then define layouts through the file system. Layouts share UI between multiple pages. On navigation, layouts preserve state, remain interactive, and do not re-render.

// app/blog/layout.js
export default function BlogLayout({ children }) {
  return <section>{children}</section>;
}

Learn more about layouts and pages or deploy an example to try it out.

Server Components

The app/ directory introduces support for React's new Server Components architecture. Server and Client Components use the server and the client each for what they're best at - allowing you to build fast, highly-interactive apps with a single programming model that provides a great developer experience.

With Server Components, we're laying the foundations to build complex interfaces while reducing the amount of JavaScript sent to the client, enabling faster initial page loads.

When a route is loaded, the Next.js and React runtime will be loaded, which is cacheable and predictable in size. This runtime does not increase in size as your application grows. Further, the runtime is asynchronously loaded, enabling your HTML from the server to be progressively enhanced on the client.

Learn more about Server Components or deploy an example to try it out.

Streaming

The app/ directory introduces the ability to progressively render and incrementally stream rendered units of the UI to the client.

With Server Components and nested layouts in Next.js, you're able instantly render parts of the page that do not specifically require data, and show a loading state for parts of the page that are fetching data. With this approach, the user does not have to wait for the entire page to load before they can start interacting with it.

You can colocate your application code, such as components, tests, and styles, with your routes.

When deployed to Vercel, Next.js 13 applications that use the app/ directory will stream responses by default in both the Node.js and Edge runtimes for improved performance.

Learn more about streaming or deploy an example to try it out.

Data Fetching

React's recent Support for Promises RFC introduces a powerful new way to fetch data and handle promises inside components:

// app/page.js
async function getData() {
  const res = await fetch('https://api.example.com/...');
  // The return value is *not* serialized
  // You can return Date, Map, Set, etc.
  return res.json();
}

// This is an async Server Component
export default async function Page() {
  const data = await getData();

  return <main>{/* ... */}</main>;
}

The native fetch Web API has also been extended in React and Next.js. It automatically dedupes fetch requests and provides one flexible way to fetch, cache, and revalidate data at the component level. This means all the benefits of Static Site Generation (SSG), Server-Side Rendering (SSR), and Incremental Static Regeneration (ISR) are now available through one API:

// This request should be cached until manually invalidated.
// Similar to `getStaticProps`.
// `force-cache` is the default and can be omitted.
fetch(URL, { cache: 'force-cache' });

// This request should be refetched on every request.
// Similar to `getServerSideProps`.
fetch(URL, { cache: 'no-store' });

// This request should be cached with a lifetime of 10 seconds.
// Similar to `getStaticProps` with the `revalidate` option.
fetch(URL, { next: { revalidate: 10 } });

In the app directory, you can fetch data inside layouts, pages, and components – including support for streaming responses from the server.

We're enabling ergonomic ways to handle loading and error states and stream in UI as it's rendered. In a future release, we'll be improving and simplifying data mutations, as well.

With the app/ directory, you can use a new special file loading.js to automatically create Instant Loading UI with Suspense boundaries.

We're excited to work with the open-source community, package maintainers, and other companies contributing to the React ecosystem to build for this new era of React and Next.js. The ability to colocate data fetching inside components and ship less JavaScript to the client were two important pieces of community feedback we are excited to include with the app/ directory.

Learn more about data fetching or deploy an example to try it out.

Introducing Turbopack (Alpha)

Next.js 13 includes Turbopack, the new Rust-based successor to Webpack.

Webpack has been downloaded over 3 billion times. While it's been an integral part of building the Web, we've hit the limits of the maximum performance possible with JavaScript-based tooling.

In Next.js 12, we began our transition to native Rust-powered tooling. We started by migrating away from Babel, which resulted in 17x faster transpilation. Then, we replaced Terser, which resulted in 6x faster minification. It's time to go all-in on native for bundling.

Using the Turbopack alpha with Next.js 13 results in:

  • 700x faster updates than Webpack
  • 10x faster updates than Vite
  • 4x faster cold starts than Webpack
Turbopack is our Rust-based successor to Webpack, with 700x faster HMR for large applications.

Turbopack only bundles the minimum assets required in development, so startup time is extremely fast. On an application with 3,000 modules, Turbopack takes 1.8 seconds to boot up. Vite takes 11.4 seconds and Webpack takes 16.5 seconds.

Turbopack has out-of-the-box support for Server Components, TypeScript, JSX, CSS, and more. During the alpha, many features are not yet supported. We'd love to hear your feedback on using Turbopack to speed up your local iterations.

Note: Turbopack in Next.js currently only supports next dev. View the supported features. We are also working to add support for next build through Turbopack.

Try out the Turbopack alpha today in Next.js 13 with next dev --turbo.

next/image

Next.js 13 introduces a powerful new Image component, allowing you to easily display images without layout shift and optimize files on-demand for increased performance.

During the Next.js Community Survey, 70% of respondents told us they used the Next.js Image component in production, and in turn, saw improved Core Web Vitals. With Next.js 13, we're improving next/image even further.

The new Image component:

  • Ships less client-side JavaScript
  • Easier to style and configure
  • More accessible requiring alt tags by default
  • Aligns with the Web platform
  • Faster because native lazy loading doesn't require hydration
import Image from 'next/image';
import avatar from './lee.png';

function Home() {
  // "alt" is now required for improved accessibility
  // optional: image files can be colocated inside the app/ directory
  return <Image alt="leeerob" src={avatar} placeholder="blur" />;
}

Learn more about the Image component or deploy an example to try it out.

Upgrading next/image to Next.js 13

The old Image component was renamed to next/legacy/image. We've provided a codemod that will automatically update your existing usage of next/image to next/legacy/image. For example, this command would run the codemod on your ./pages directory when run from the root:

npx @next/codemod next-image-to-legacy-image ./pages

Learn more about the codemod or check out the documentation.

@next/font

Next.js 13 introduces a brand new font system that:

  • Automatically optimizes your fonts, including custom fonts
  • Removes external network requests for improved privacy and performance
  • Built-in automatic self-hosting for any font file
  • Zero layout shift automatically using the CSS size-adjust property

This new font system allows you to conveniently use all Google Fonts with performance and privacy in mind. CSS and font files are downloaded at build time and self-hosted with the rest of your static assets. No requests are sent to Google by the browser.

import { Inter } from '@next/font/google';

const inter = Inter();

<html className={inter.className}>

Custom fonts are also supported, including support for automatic self-hosting, caching, and preloading of font files.

import localFont from '@next/font/local';

const myFont = localFont({ src: './my-font.woff2' });

<html className={myFont.className}>

You can customize every part of the font loading experience while still ensuring great performance and no layout shift, including the font-display, preloading, fallbacks, and more.

Learn more about the new Font component or deploy an example to try it out.

next/link

next/link no longer requires manually adding <a> as a child.

This was added as an experimental option in 12.2 and is now the default. In Next.js 13, <Link> always renders an <a> and allows you to forward props to the underlying tag. For example:

import Link from 'next/link'

// Next.js 12: `<a>` has to be nested otherwise it's excluded
<Link href="/about">
  <a>About</a>
</Link>

// Next.js 13: `<Link>` always renders `<a>`
<Link href="/about">
  About
</Link>

Learn more about the improved Link component or deploy an example to try it out.

Upgrading next/link to Next.js 13

To upgrade your links to Next.js 13, we've provided a codemod that will automatically update your codebase. For example, this command would run the codemod on your ./pages directory when run from the root:

npx @next/codemod new-link ./pages

Learn more about the codemod or check out the documentation.

OG Image Generation

Social cards, also known as open graph images, can massively increase the engagement rate of clicks on your content, with some experiments showing up to 40% better conversions.

Static social cards are time-consuming, error-prone, and hard to maintain. Because of this, social cards are often lacking or even skipped. Until today, dynamic social cards that need to be personalized and computed on the fly were difficult and expensive.

We've created a new library @vercel/og that works seamlessly with Next.js to generate dynamic social cards.

// pages/api/og.jsx

import { ImageResponse } from '@vercel/og';

export const config = {
  runtime: 'experimental-edge',
};

export default function () {
  return new ImageResponse(
    (
      <div
        style={{
          display: 'flex',
          fontSize: 128,
          background: 'white',
          width: '100%',
          height: '100%',
        }}
      >
        Hello, World!
      </div>
    ),
  );
}

This approach is 5x faster than existing solutions by using Vercel Edge Functions, WebAssembly, and a brand new core library for converting HTML and CSS into images and leveraging the React component abstraction.

Learn more about OG Image Generation or deploy an example to try it out.

Middleware API Updates

In Next.js 12, we introduced Middleware to enable full flexibility with the Next.js router. We've heard your feedback on the initial API design and have added some additions to improve the developer experience and add powerful new functionality.

You can now more easily set headers on the request:

// middleware.ts
import { NextResponse } from 'next/server';
import type { NextRequest } from 'next/server';

export function middleware(request: NextRequest) {
  // Clone the request headers and set a new header `x-version`
  const requestHeaders = new Headers(request.headers);
  requestHeaders.set('x-version', '13');

  // You can also set request headers in NextResponse.rewrite
  const response = NextResponse.next({
    request: {
      // New request headers
      headers: requestHeaders,
    },
  });

  // Set a new response header `x-version`
  response.headers.set('x-version', '13');
  return response;
}

You can also now provide a response directly from Middleware, without having to rewrite or redirect.

// middleware.ts
import { NextRequest, NextResponse } from 'next/server';
import { isAuthenticated } from '@lib/auth';

// Limit the middleware to paths starting with `/api/`
export const config = {
  matcher: '/api/:function*',
};

export function middleware(request: NextRequest) {
  // Call our authentication function to check the request
  if (!isAuthenticated(request)) {
    // Respond with JSON indicating an error message
    return NextResponse.json(
      {
        success: false,
        message: 'Auth failed',
      },
      {
        status: 401,
      },
    );
  }
}

Sending responses from Middleware currently requires the experimental.allowMiddlewareResponseBody configuration option inside next.config.js.

Breaking Changes

  • The minimum React version has been bumped from 17.0.2 to 18.2.0.
  • The minimum Node.js version has been bumped from 12.22.0 to 14.6.0, since 12.x has reached end-of-life (PR).
  • The swcMinify configuration property was changed from false to true. See Next.js Compiler for more info.
  • The next/image import was renamed to next/legacy/image. The next/future/image import was renamed to next/image. A codemod is available to safely and automatically rename your imports.
  • The next/link child can no longer be <a>. Add the legacyBehavior prop to use the legacy behavior or remove the <a> to upgrade. A codemod is available to automatically upgrade your code.
  • Routes are no longer prefetched when the User-Agent is a bot.
  • The deprecated target option of next.config.js has been removed.
  • The supported browsers have been changed to drop Internet Explorer and target modern browsers. You can still use Browserslist to change targeted browsers.
    • Chrome 64+
    • Edge 79+
    • Firefox 67+
    • Opera 51+
    • Safari 12+

To learn more, check out the upgrade guide.

Community

Six years ago, we released Next.js to the public. We set out to build a zero-configuration React framework that simplifies your developer experience. Looking back, it's incredible to see how the community has grown, and what we've been able to ship together. Let's keep going.

Next.js is the result of the combined work of over 2,400 individual developers, industry partners like Google and Meta, and our core team. With over 3 million npm downloads per week and 94,000 GitHub stars, Next.js is one of the most popular ways of building the Web.

Special thanks to the Aurora team at Google Chrome who helped with the foundational research and experiments that led to this release.

This release was brought to you by the contributions of: @ijjk, @huozhi, @HaNdTriX, @iKethavel, @timneutkens, @shuding, @rishabhpoddar, @hanneslund, @balazsorban44, @devknoll, @anthonyshew, @TomerAberbach, @philippbosch, @styfle, @mauriciomutte, @hayitsdavid, @abdennor, @Kikobeats, @cjdunteman, @Mr-Afonso, @kdy1, @jaril, @abdallah-nour, @North15, @feedthejim, @brunocrosier, @Schniz, @sedlukha, @hashlash, @Ethan-Arrowood, @fireairforce, @migueloller, @leerob, @janicklas-ralph, @Trystanr, @atilafassina, @nramkissoon, @kasperadk, @valcosmos, @henriqueholtz, @nip10, @jesstelford, @lorensr, @AviAvinav, @SukkaW, @jaycedotbin, @saurabhburade, @notrab, @kwonoj, @sanruiz, @angeloashmore, @falsepopsky, @fmontes, @Gebov, @UltiRequiem, @p13lgst, @Simek, @mrkldshv, @thomasballinger, @kyliau, @AdarshKonchady, @endymion1818, @pedro757, @perkinsjr, @gnoff, @jridgewell, @silvioprog, @mabels, @nialexsan, @feugy, @jackromo888, @crazyurus, @EarlGeorge, @MariaSolOs, @lforst, @maximbaz, @maxam2017, @teobler, @Nutlope, @sunwoo0706, @WestonThayer, @Brooooooklyn, @Nsttt, @charlypoly, @aprendendofelipe, @sviridoff, @jackton1, @nuta, @Rpaudel379, @marcialca, @MarDi66, @ismaelrumzan, @javivelasco, @eltociear, and @hiro0218.